Thursday, March 19, 2020

Guidelines for Using Abbreviations in Formal Writing

Guidelines for Using Abbreviations in Formal Writing Provided they are not obscure to the reader, abbreviations communicate more with fewer letters. Writers have only to ensure that the abbreviations they use are too well known to need any introduction, or that they are introduced and explained on their first appearance. - From The Cambridge Guide to English Usage by Pam Peters Despite what you may have heard in school, abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms are commonly used in formal writing (though youll find them more frequently in business and the sciences than in the humanities). Exactly how they should be used depends on your audience, the country youre living in (British and American conventions differ), and the particular style guide youre following. 10 Tips for Using Abbreviations Correctly Using Indefinite Articles Before Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms: The choice between a and an is determined by the sound of the first letter in the abbreviation. Use a before a consonant sound (for example, a CBC documentary or a U.S. official). Use an before a vowel sound (an ABC documentary or an MRI).Placing a Period at the End of an Abbreviation: In American usage, an abbreviation that includes the first and last letters of a single word (Doctor, for example) is usually followed by a period (Dr.), while In British usage, the period (or full stop) is usually omitted (Dr).Abbreviating the Titles of Doctors: For medical doctors, write either Dr. Jan Jones or Jan Jones, M.D. (Dont write Dr. Jan Jones, M.D.) For nonmedical doctors, write Dr. Sam Smith or Sam Smith, Ph.D. (Dont write Dr. Sam Smith, Ph.D.)Using Common Abbreviations: Certain abbreviations are never spelled out: a.m., p.m., B.C. (or B.C.E.), A.D. (or C.E.). Unless your style guide says otherwise, use lower case o r small capitals for a.m. and p.m. Use capital letters or small caps for B.C. and A.D. (the periods are optional). Traditionally, B.C. comes after the year and A.D. comes before it, but nowadays the abbreviation commonly follows the year in both instances. Abbreviating Months and Days: If the month is preceded or followed by a numeral (14 Aug. or Aug. 14), abbreviate months as follows: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sep. (or Sept.), Oct., Nov., Dec. Dont abbreviate May, June, or July. As a general rule, dont abbreviate the month if it appears alone or with just the year- and dont abbreviate the days of the week unless they appear in charts, tables, or slides.Using the Abbreviation Etc.: The Latin abbreviation etc. (short for et cetera) means and others. Never write and etc. Do not use etc. at the end of a list introduced by such as or including.Placing a Period After Each Letter in an Acronym or an Initialism: Though there are exceptions, as a general rule omit the periods: NATO, DVD, IBM.Punctuating an Abbreviation at the End of a Sentence: Use a single period when an abbreviation appears at the end of a sentence. The single period does double duty- marking the abbreviation and closing the sentence.Avoid RAS Syndrome: RAS syndrome is a humorous initialism for Redundant Acronym (or Abbreviation) Syndrome syndrome. Avoid redundant expressions such as ATM machine and BBC corporation. Avoid Alphabet Soup: Alphabet soup (a.k.a. initialese) is a metaphor for using an overabundance of abbreviations and acronyms. If youre unsure whether the meaning of an abbreviation is familiar to your readers, write out the entire word.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Euclid of Alexandria and His Contributions to Geometry

Euclid of Alexandria and His Contributions to Geometry Euclid of Alexandria lived in 365-300 BC (approximately). Mathematicians usually refer to him simply as Euclid, but hes sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to avoid confusion with the Green Socratic philosopher Euclid of Megara. Euclid of Alexandria is considered to be the Father of Geometry. Very little is known about Euclids life except that he taught in Alexandria, Egypt. He may have become educated at Platos Academy in Athens, or possibly from some of Platos students. He is an important historical figure because all of the rules we use in Geometry today are based on the writings of Euclid, specifically The Elements. The Elements includes the following Volumes: Volumes 1-6: Plane GeometryVolumes 7-9: Number TheoryVolume 10: Eudoxus Theory of Irrational NumbersVolumes 11-13: Solid Geometry The first edition of the Elements was actually printed in 1482 in a very logical, coherent framework. More than one thousand editions have been printed throughout the decades. Schools only stopped using the Elements in the early 1900s, some were still using it in the early 1980s, however, the theories continue to be those that we use today. Euclids book the Elements also contains the beginnings of number theory. The Euclidean algorithm, which is often referred to as Euclids algorithm, is used to determine the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two integers. It is one of the oldest algorithms known and was included in Euclids Elements. Euclids algorithm does not require factoring. Euclid also discusses perfect numbers, infinite prime numbers, and Mersenne primes (the Euclid-Euler theorem). The concepts presented in The Elements werent all original. Many of them had been proposed by earlier mathematicians. Possibly the greatest value of Euclids writings is that they present the ideas as a comprehensive, well-organized reference. The principals are supported by mathematical proofs, which geometry students learn even to this day. Main Contributions He is famous for his treatise on geometry: The Elements. The Elements makes Euclid one of if not the most famous mathematics teacher. The knowledge in the Elements has been the foundation for teachers of mathematics for over 2000 years Geometry tutorials wouldnt be possible without the work of Euclid. Famous Quote:  There is no royal road to geometry. In addition to his brilliant contributions to linear and planar geometry, Euclid wrote about number theory, rigor, perspective, conical geometry, and spherical geometry. Recommended Read Remarkable Mathematicians: The author of this book  profiles 60 famous mathematicians who were born between 1700 and 1910 and provides insight into their remarkable lives and their contributions to the field of math. This text is organized chronologically and provides interesting information about the details of the mathematicians lives. Euclidean Geometry vs Non-Euclidean Geometry At the time, and for many centuries, Euclids work was simply called geometry because it was assumed to be the only possible method of describing space and the position of figures. In the 19th century, other types of geometry were described. Now, Euclids work is called Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from the other methods. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

What are the challenges associated with introducing e-learning within Essay

What are the challenges associated with introducing e-learning within organisations - Essay Example The availability and the ease of access to the web-based resources have added new dimensions to corporate training. Companies have been forced to adapt to the constantly and rapidly changing world. Global trade and marketing environment require change but change erodes control and prevents the establishment of status quo. The production processes and the marketing technique need to be replaced. Companies who innovate will survive. The pace at which technology is changing is overwhelming and it is essential to mould the employees accordingly or lose out. The type of training, the pace and the means of training have all undergone a change (Byers, 2005). The new sources now compel an organization to embrace e-learning which implies new ways to support and deliver training. E-learning also known as computer-based learning or online distance educations refers to the structured, computer enabled learning carried out by individuals or groups over the internet or internal network (Isoph, 200 4). E-learning delivers just-in-time training for people when they need it (Sullivan, 2002). E-learning delivers efficient solutions to developing the staff and keeping them abreast of new trends and technologies; it allows on-the-job and self-paced training. E-learning materials can be regularly updated and published immediately. E-learning provides a variety of components that together make up a total learning solution – inbuilt tests allows the employees to test their own skills; learning management systems (LMS) enables them and their managers to track their progress (E-learning Forge, 2007). Nevertheless, managers and instructors are facing new challenges in planning e-learning. Project managers need to consider and design multi-level alignments, identify and satisfy the stakeholders involved in all phases of the instructional design process and attend the principles suggested in the literature (Villachia et al., 2004 cited by Byers, 2005). Any

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Multitasking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Multitasking - Essay Example This facility helped in improving efficiency1. With respect to computing, the term Multitasking refers to a process which facilitates undertaking of several tasks or processes at the same time, by enabling sharing of certain common processing resources such as the CPU for instance. Multitasking refers to the running of multiple independent computer programs on the same computer; giving the appearance that it is performing the tasks at the same time. The kernel of the operating system is responsible for that activity. In computing terms, kernel acts as a vital constituent of a majority of computer operating systems. Its key responsibilities include administering the operating systems resources, for instance, setting up and ensuring adequate interaction between the hardware as well as software components. One of the fundamental functions of the kernel includes administering the computer’s resources and permitting other programs to run and use these resources. Characteristically, the resources comprises of: the CPU (central processing unit), the memory of the system, as well as the I/O (Input / Output) devices. The multitasking characteristic entails the necessity to sustain simultaneous implementation of processes and to offer services for inter process communication and synchronization. Other less noticeable yet equally significant functions of the kernel comprises of management of interrupts and basic process scheduling. Furthermore, apart from the above listed functions, the kernel typically manages some ancillary actions essential for offering the services which are observable by the other Operating System layers. Examples of such internal kernel operations include system time-base management and processor allocation by means of basic process scheduling. Multitasking can be classified into two major forms: Cooperative multitasking and Preemptive Multitasking. In

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Net Privacy Essay -- social issues

Net Privacy The internet has brought mixed blessings to the people who use it. It is a fantastic information source but the relative lack of privacy has brought forth a major problem. Anyone with even little hacking knowledge can track every move that you make while using internet services and/or view private or confidential information. It is now possible for some internet sites can actually find information such as e-mail addresses or the name of the person/people viewing the site without authorisation. This problem can affect everyone who uses any internet services and ultimately can lead to very confidential information(such as credit card numbers) getting into the hands of criminals. Internet services and facilities are now used and provided by many companies and individuals worldwide. Each web site that is visited could have the capability of finding out your name and/or e-mail address and sending junk e-mail or cataloguing this information and then selling it to other companies. The ISP that you connect to the internet also has a record of every bit of information you upload or download, and must keep records for official purposes. Any sites that ask for your credit card number for "pay by use" or restricted services could, in fact, sell or use such information for illegal purposes such as fraud. The actual hardware requirements for using the internet are minimal, only an internet service provider(a company that allows a connection to the internet), modem(to send and receive data transmissions through a phone line), phone line(to dial up the I.S.P,) and a reasonably fast computer(to run the hardware and software) are needed to get onto the internet. This allows almost anyone with a computer to access the internet. Software is needed to browse or view the internet is a browser(such as Netscape Navigator, MS Internet Explorer) and for e-mail services, programs such as Eudora, Netscape Navigator or MS Internet Explorer are needed to send or receive e-mail. Nearly everyone will at some stage in their lives use the Internet. Very minimal skills are needed to use the Internet, and it allows people to access an immense amount of information at the touch of a button. All a person with a little hacking knowledge needs to do to get such information is to use a Trojan horse type program and he or she can follow you around and view the information ... ...er band of people would be willing to visit sites and enter confidential information without any fear of misuse. It must be the future of the Internet. Computer Privacy is a major issue and it does effect anyone who uses any internet service. Something must be done to stop the crimes committed against the privacy of people and people should be allowed to control their personal or confidential information, whether they want it freely available or not. Only through consumer pressure will the internet become more secure as has happened in America. Already people can join up to ISP's with totally secure services with total anonymity. This must be the future of the internet. BIBLIOGRAPHY World Wide Web Electronic Privacy Information Center Authors, Electronic Privacy Information Center, [Online] http://www.epic.org/, 22/4/97 unknown. Who Owns Personal Information?: Junk Mail and Privacy [Online] http://www.epic.org/privacy/junk_mail/ ,24/4/97 unknown. THE FACTS ABOUT COMPUTER PRIVACY, [Online] http://www.203.232.1.23/~org/~itop/priv.html MAILING LIST unknown. Computer Privacy Digest, [e-mail service] mailing list newsletter, unknown. ,20/3/97

Friday, January 17, 2020

I am Legend Essay

Traditionally, bookstores categorize various books based on their respective contents – horror, fiction, literature, or science fiction. Horror texts invoke feelings of fear in readers due to their bizarre or macabre content. Science fiction or fiction books describe imaginary concepts of either scientific or general nature respectively. Conversely, literature books comprise of texts that are neither fictional nor horror-based. Matheson’s I am Legend novel thus belongs to the category of horror owing to the ghoulish events described therein. For example, the vampirism that is evident in the novel instills fear among readers, thus rendering the work a horror literature. Although ‘good’ or ‘bad’ are purely subjective terms, people sometime use these terms to describe different texts. Such categorization relies heavily on persons’ subjective judgment, for example, regarding the emotions that such texts invoke in readers. To illustrate, horror, mystery, or romance books may be termed as ‘bad’. Conversely, science fiction books are labeled as ‘good’. Since such classification is very subjective and unstable owing to persons’ varied preferences and views, there is essentially no entire class of books that can be categorically termed as either ‘bad’ or ‘good’. After studying Matheson’s I am Legend novel, I cannot help but view it as a subjectively ‘bad’ book based on the ghastly scenes that the author describes. For example, Robert Neville – the novel’s main character – is consistently described as being engaged in a futile rush to beat some seemingly insurmountable bigger forces. The character is thus clearly destined for death as is evident through his obviously futile attempts to fight against a vampire curse on earth. Eventually, Neville dies a sad and regretful death after spending a great deal of his time trying to outdo the evil that lurks on the earth. Through the somewhat unnecessary and martyr-like death of Neville, the author makes the book appear as a ‘bad’ one because a character is unjustly punished by death.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Expectancy Theory of Motivation - 670 Words

Expectancy Theory of Motivation In a business, what motivates employees to do their best? One theory that may explain the reasons why some employees seem more motivated than others is the Expectancy theory of motivation. The Expectancy theory operates under the assumption that employees will perform well based on self-belief and how much they desire the rewards their actions will render. Three key components and relationships in this theory determine how motivated an employee will choose to be: expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Expectancy, as it relates to organizational behavior, is an employee’s belief that they can put high levels of effort into a task and accomplish it successfully. An employee’s belief that they can†¦show more content†¦There is a low expectancy level for those employees who do not feel they have enough dexterity to perform well with the new production process. To correct this, Supervisor A can motivate these employees by appealing to their need for growth. The novices can also be partnered up with other employees that have mastered the process so that they can vicariously learn. Any other activities or explicit forms of training that will help the employee grow in their self-awareness and confidence would also help to increase productivity. Employees perceive that no matter what level they perform all the employees will be compensated in the same way, which exhibits a low level of instrumentality. Supervisor A could increase this level by creating a policy for the compensation and disciplinary actions that the company will take for achievement or failure of accomplishing company goals. In this policy, employees that meet company goals will be compensated at a lesser level than those that exceed the goal and those employees that don’t meet company goals will be given additional training and disciplinary action if they still fail to meet company goals. 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